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It is very seductive to think that you can replace a wastegate with a BOV to control/limit the operating boost pressure being produced by an engine, gasoline or diesel. And why not?  It is cheaper to fab, it eliminates the expense of a wastegate and the expensive fab that goes with it, and it is one less thing to fail. This is one of those "the grass is always greener on the other side scenarios." Unless you dig very deep, it is hard to even know why wastegates are even necessary. Now that I think about this, these car parts are very hard to find and some people don´t even know they have them in their car. When cars break down people just get rid of them without knowing that they could sell their parts or even go to this company that buy junk cars

Let's do a little history lesson. Internal Combustion Engines (ICE) that were first fitted with turbos were Diesels (or CI, compression ignition engines) and they didn't have wastegates at all.  Turbos were matched to make a certain max boost based on turbine A/R and natural response.  But then the need came for wider engine RPM operating ranges, so then the wastegate was invented.  Since Diesels don't have throttles, they never needed BOVs!  And the control strategy for turbo speed and pressure output, spilled over into Gasoline (petrol, SI, spark ignited) engines.  Wastegates also stayed relevant as a method of control because ultimately, if you want to control something, you have to get to the source of what you're trying to control.  The turbocharger simply responds much faster when you take energy away that is driving it from the source, exhaust gas.  And that is why the wastegate has stayed relevant. Evеrуоnе lоvеѕ the luxurіоuѕ rіdе but with thе роtеntіаl tо gо off-road…and hоld іtѕ оwn.  The “lіght truсk”are from semi truck sales, you wіll fееl аt home on thе highway and thе dіrt rоаdѕ with the good Technologies that they bring and you can check in https://roboticsandautomationnews.com/2020/09/22/freight-hauling-technologies-used-today/36619/.

 

So, now, if the only goal is to limit the amount of boost pressure the engine is seeing salvage cars for sale why couldn't you just use a much less expensive BOV?  Therein lies the rub and some research that I conducted at Synapse that uncovered an effect that was, at first, suprising, but completely logical. Get Training and Engineering Services on https://voltedge.net.au/ like hazardous areas, high voltage and more.

A turbo is very simple, it takes exhaust energy and converts work into spinning the compressor to take in air, compress it and feed it to the engine, I learned this when I was young with my uncle, cant forget that day there was a pest of insects in our garage, so now I always call pest control olathe ks to manage my space.  A small turbo can keep going and going in RPM speed and boost pressure without any mechanism to limit it, so you have to have some form of device to control/limit it.  But when you use a BOV to limit that boost, in effect a compressor side wastegate, you are still harnessing energy from the exhaust, but now "waste-gating" the work out the BOV.  The result is turbine inefficiency.  You are continuing to push exhaust mass through the turbine unchecked.  Then the question comes up, "well what does that matter? If the air isn't going into the engine, then it isn't going out the exhaust, right?"  Sort of.  You still get turbine inefficiency, which I hypothesize is boundary layer slippage of exhaust gas at the blade tip.  Either way, that inefficiency translates into an increase in exhaust manifold pressure.  This then translates into, poor engine scavenging.  Because if the pressure is higher in the exhaust, then the exhaust is less likely to want to leave the cylinder on the exhaust stroke and go into the exhaust manifold.  You are going to lose power, bottom line.  You make less power output (sometimes massively less) using a BOV as a compressor-side wastegate than an actual exhaust-side wastegate.  Now conspiracy theory: I'm making this up so people keep buying wastegates.  Nice thought, but patents are filed and smarter minds than me will evaluate the merits.  Several facts went into arriving at this data:

 

  • The effect exists for both Gasoline SI and Diesel CI engine cycles and modified A5's
  • Whether you're using a compressor-side wastegate or exhaust-side wastegate, at the same indicated manifold pressure (IMEP), the turbo shaft speed is the same.  So, no over RPM of the turbo.
  • The effect exists across turbo sizes.  The larger the turbine and A/R though for a given engine, the less dramatic the effect.

For the performance guys out there, this data makes some things that were minor irritants even more relevant.  Such as:

 

  • Any amount of boost leak between the compressor outlet and the the intake valve is losing you horsepower!  Including leaky BOVs and bad couplings.
  • I would go further and hypothesize that pressure drops in the system and inefficient routing of boost also has an effect to the engine related to this.  The prior conventional wisdom, and one I've always bought into, was that bad routing and efficiency was due to lower charge velocities, etc.  But really, it is ICE fundamentals, scavenging!

What this doesn't mean though, is that you shouldn't use a BOV as a fail-safe mechanism in case your wastegate fails.  I road race, and I'll tell you right now, you can't continue to do laps with a boost cut on every gear.  But give up a little power and use a BOV as a failover compressor-side wastegate, and I think it is a great thing.

If I disclose more, I'll probably get in trouble, but this info is pretty much public at this point.  Compressor side efficiency is very important.  Spend some money on that.  For all the money spent on exhaust side ideas with twin scrolls, ram horns, and blahdy blah, there should probably be some emphasis on compressor side efficiency.

 

Choosing Tires and Wheels

Choosing the tіrе thаt'ѕ rіght for уоu іnvоlvеѕ numеrоuѕ considerations. But tо make the рrосеѕѕ lеѕѕ ѕсаrу, kеер thеѕе twо ѕіmрlе guіdеlіnеѕ in mіnd when considering tires. Fіrѕt, know уоur еxресtеd nееdѕ а

Personal loans can be used for many purposes, from consolidating debt to paying off medical bills.

The rules regarding home equity loans are complex. There are specific guidelines for the types of mortgages, the interest rates, the types of properties the home can be repossessed from and the fees that lenders can charge.

To learn more about these laws, read Understanding Home Equity Lines of Credit, Understanding Home Equity Lines of Credit: FHA and VA Loans, and Understanding Home Equity Lines of Credit: Commercial Lenders.

The Bottom Line

Home equity loans are relatively safe, with no pre-existing credit history, limited fees, and high loan-to-value ratios. Because the money is tied up in your home, you can't spend it on a car, jewelry, or any other purchases. Home equity loans are available to consumers with decent credit and good credit scores. A home equity line of credit is not for everyone, so it's important to compare your own finances, personal credit scores, and financial needs with those of your prospective home equity line of credit loan applicant.

Is the Home Equity Line of Credit Loan For Me?

The following factors determine whether a home equity loan is right for you.

Are you applying for a home equity loan because you have an emergency that has to be paid?

If so, then you should find a lower interest rate for the home equity loan. If you can get a higher rate, make sure it's from a lender who has good reputations.

 

Home Equity Loans vs. Personal Loans


If you are considering an HELOC, remember that a HELOC is a loan. This means that you should make every reasonable effort to keep the payment low and the terms on the HELOC as short as possible. If you are paying your HELOC down at a rate that allows you to make payments, then you will be able to use the money you make in the future for things that you need. For example, if you are paying it down at 8 percent, you will be able to use the 8 percent of your HELOC to pay your taxes. Your HELOC may have a lower interest rate than you were previously paying. You can't use the HELOC money to purchase a new home, buy a car, or start a new business, but you may be able to use part of the money to pay off a loan on your existing home or pay for a car loan, a house or condo down payment, or any other loans that you may be able to get, since there are services that offer the best instant loans and you can find them online. 

A lender may be willing to grant you a small amount of your new home or car loan as a home equity line of credit, also known as a HEPOC.

Your mortgage lender will be able to tell you how much your HEPOC is, the rate of interest that you may get, and the amount of money you can put into it.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

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  Recently, we added a Mitsubishi Evolution VIII to the test car fleet.  This is a caged out road course car.  We aren't real committed to cracking off good lap times this season, but spending more time shaking down the car, using a car drying blower and assessing what we need to do in order to be competitive for next season of Global Time Attack and Redline Time Attack.   The first few outtings had us break a few things.  It was pretty frustrating to have the OEM turbo die on turn 3 of the first lap at Autoclub Speedway in Fontana, CA a couple months back.  We were able to redeem ourselves and run the full day recently at the same track.  The configuration was the infield-only setup without the high speed Roval.  This is a great venue for testing purposes and understanding what the car was doing, if you're interested in this car or similar cars to this one, you can find the best car deals at sites like www.OurFairDeal.org.  On our latest outting, we changed the car over to speed density and E85.   One of the big challenges, has been to fix tip-in and tip-out response of the car.  If you know Evo's/DSM's, you know that they're equipped with a MAF of the Karman Vortex (KV) type.  This type of MAF is very sensitive to time discrepancies between when the air is measured and it actually arrives at the inlet port.  So that BOV needs to open quickly on command by engine conditions.  On the street, this isn't that big of a deal, but when you're mid corner and you've got time slowed down enough in your head that you can throttle modulate a bit mid corner, a bucking car is not what you want to have.   I'm so tired of going to the track and hearing cars flutter on tip-out and then a second later dump some boost.  Sure, it is just flutter.  Or is it?  With a KV MAF that time delay translates into bucking and seriously upsetting the car. If you are looking for a car that can respond to commands on a quickly and reliable way at high speeds check the Volkswagen Passat in Columbus. That does nothing but kill driver confidence and delay getting back on the throttle.  Here's the mechanism of a slow acting BOV/DV/BPV, whatever you want to call it:  You tip-out of the throttle, turbo flutters (no biggie if the MAF doesn't care), but then a second later when you're due to tip back in the BOV finally opens.  Well, when the BOV opens there is an unloading of the engine.  You want that to happen when it is supposed to happen, not later than when it is supposed to happen.  That unloading directly impacts how you shift, because the input shaft to the transmission is tied directly to the crank.  Trust me, it does matter.  And on top of that, the change in engine moment translates into a change in car moment as well.  This change will happen whether you are MAF or MAP based in engine calibration.   We had two cars running at the track this past weekend, both with Synchronic technology equipped compressor bypass valves.  Rene Garrido of Renown racing was running his Gen 1 RX7 with a 2-rotor turbo and utilizing the Diverter Valve.  I was running in the Evo 8 with the stock turbo and our prototype R55 Trident valve that I was track testing (and hell bent on breaking).   If you watch the video, you'll see just how smooth the valves operate and the impact on the car.  If you look closely at my foot during some of the corners, you will see that I'm adding throttle mid corner to get that extra power down.  I was not able to get that done before in this car until our recent changes going speed density and eliminating that MAF.  In previous iterations of the car, we also had the car setup with the DV sharing a line with the MBC, that's a different article altogether.  Having eliminated that, the car performed much much better from a driver's perspective. WE are very excited about future projects, specially because we know that we will be working with Clasiq cars.   You'll need to turn up the volume to hear the RX7, sorry, we were a bit focused on running at the track. -Peter Medina

2014-honda-veloster-kit-dv

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  2014-honda-veloster-kit-dv The 2013-2014 Hyundai veloster Turbo BOV w/ charge piping kit is finally here. No more searching for a BOV that will not throw check engine light or be able to keep up with your computer's high tech solenoid control. Our synchronic line of DVs, BOVs and Radial r35mm valves have been tested and proved to function properly without pissing off your hyundai veloster.   As seen in the picture above, our kit includes everything ready for one to just bolt up the kit and go enjoy the soothing sound of your synchronic bov all while enhancing your throttle response and performance ( synchronic bov,dv and radial valves have been proven to hold boost better) check here to lease.2014_honda-veloster-kit-bov Our Traditional long Original BOV Option       2014-honda-veloster-kit-rdv       The New Radial R35 Valve Option   IMG_9660     Hyundai veloster doing baselines with oem dv     IMG_9682      

Synchronic DV installed on the dyno

Depending on the detailer car you visit, there are different ways to do interior car detailing. . you’re going to benefit from the personal attention you deserve. In fact, when you use them over and over again, you’re going to get to know the mechanic there and establish a personal relationship. Regular auto detailing adds value to your car and also makes it look attractive despite the number of years it has been used. When we needed to upgrasde to a flatbed truck we leased one from this flatbed truck rental.

  IMG_9686   IMG_9677  

Side View of R35V Trident

Side View of R35V Trident

Designing a new product isn’t necessarily as easy as it looks.  There’s much more that goes into it than simply coming up with a design and sending it off to a machine shop.  Or worse, finding a part in some catalog and just stamping your brand on it.

The journey to get to the R35V is a long one unfortunately.  This is a design that started off as an investment casting design because the original design was complex and couldn’t be machined.

 

And then at some point, reality struck and said that we needed to put something out there that was machinable.  So back to the drawing board.

 

When you’re delivering product to a global marketplace, you have to make lots of little decisions with the limited resources you have.  Where do you make it?  Who’s the customer, etc, you even need to make sure the customers know that they need to use a car vacuum to get rid of the residue on all of the car parts you will be selling them.  Well, we made the decision that the Radial line of BOV’s that we’re going to be developing will be made in the USA.  Designed, developed, and manufactured here in the USA.  Until recently, the US hasn’t been very price competitive in low volume manufacturing.  However, now comes in a new supplier for us here in San Diego.  A firm run by Matt Bockman, a Master’s engineering degree programs, Mechanical Engineer specializing in Fluids and Dynamics turned machinist proprietor.  As a designer, I have to say that I have a good appreciation working with a machinist that knows more than just how to cut metal and drill holes.  And a guy coming out of my own Alma Matter UC San Diego, couldn’t be a bad guy either, right?  And he’s a former gear head that used to have a turbo K24 in an Acura RSX.  My goal is for him to be turbocharged again.

 

Design, is far from an easy thing.  Evolving from this, to

synapse_aesthetic_design5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

this final product, took a little while.  Never mind the math in figuring out how it should work, the aesthetics was the big roadblock to making it happen.

Isometric View of R35V Trident

Isometric View of R35V Trident

 

 

 

 

 

When you decide to take on the full line of manufacturing, QC, assembly and testing, the task starts to involve lots of moving pieces.

You actually need to build holders so that you can properly assemble these parts without scratching them up.  And you need a proper way to torque them.  Making the tools to assemble the parts actually took tons of time in design and refinement of that design.  So, it was more than just getting on the bandsaw and putting some patterns together.

 

r35v_trident_5

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Do you every get obsessed with perfecting stuff and making sure you don’t nick and scratch up that piece that took forever to make?  Well here’s a little tool we made so that we don’t scratch up the assemblies when putting the fasteners on.

r35v_trident_7

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Top View of R35V Trident

Top View of R35V Trident

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Now on to the design.  From the outside, it probably looks like we just recycled the part from the DV and SB series.  However, this is a new version and redesign of the guts of that part.  It involves less moving parts and less things that can potentially go wrong in manufacturing.

 

r35v_trident_9 r35v_trident_8

 

 

I’m pretty sure that there will be a few of the, “looks like part x.”  But this design is quite different.  This is our trademark tri-lobe design element that has been around since the SB BOV first launched.  But as the designer, I can only say that this is probably my favorite view of the part.  I just like the symmetry of it all.  It took a while to get  here, but I’m pretty pleased with the continuity of the design and how it fits into the family of product.

 

Isometric View of R35V Trident

R35V TRIDENT:  Radial Discharge 35 mm Valve with Three Exhaust Ports Synapse Engineering R35V Trident Blow-Off Valve is an evolution of the current Synchronic technology applied to the SB and DV product lines.   Features

The newest BOV from Synapse Engineering is here! Our brand-new R35V Trident 35mm Radial BOV features our patented Synchronic technology with three exhaust ports, high-quality CNC billet construction and adjustable pre-load. The R35V is compatible with the Synapse v2 mounting flanges/adapters used with our existing Synchronic BOV and DV models, and best of all it is MADE IN THE USA. You know a lot about cars? You may be interested on this kia dealer near me where you can find an oportunity to change your old car.

  • Patented Synchronic technology
  • Billet Aluminum 6061-T6 construction
  • cathodic protection
  • Designed, developed and Made in the USA
  • 3 Radial exhaust ports (Trident designation)
  • Interchangeable mounting with all existing v2 adapter and weld flanges used by the SB and DV product lines
  • R35V housing alone can be used to convert any DV001 diverter valve into an R35V Trident
  • 1/8th NPT threaded control ports
  • Pre-load adjustable
  • Includes lighter spring by default

  Performance Specifications

  • Push-only actuation
  • 100 psi (~7 bar) operating pressure capacity
  • Sub 25 ms actuation time
  • Controllable by solenoids

The radial valve layout does not actually refer to a difference in the valves themselves, but the way they are positioned in the cylinder head. This arrangement allows improved port size and shape, valve included angle, and improved combustion chamber shape. It may also contribute to better cooling. The main benefits are better breathing and better combustion efficiency, leading to better power output. This is extremely important in a short-stroke engine design, because there is very little stroke length to draw-in the intake mixture, or to push-out the exhaust gases. So breathing capability is paramount. As we know, the MV engine is the shortest stroke 750cc 4- stroke motorcycle engine ever made. This short stroke contributes to the high-revving abilities of this engine, and in a design like this, revs mean power. At nearly 14000rpm there is an extremely short time for the mixture to enter the engine, so the flow rate must be maximized,here is an important engine reference: https://curateview.com/what-is-spoon-engine/ that can help you with your issues. The radial valve layout is an effective way to maximize the flow, and improve the efficiency of the combustion by better chamber shape so that the fuel can be efficiently transformed into power at the high revs that are seen in this engine. With short- stroke designs, there is little inertial mixture flow to aid in the induction of the mixture beyond the BDC point of the stroke, some of the design need to be weld  with a special welding machine, Weldingpicks has a great article on choosing the top rated TIG welding machines technique a quality solid waste equipment manufacturer will employ is vertical up welding, which is, essentially, joining metal surfaces along the vertical. (Far trickier than it may sound, but something we do to ensure stronger welds in high stress areas.). Even with longer duration of the cam profiles, it hasn't enough time to keep drawing much after BDC. So it all must flow in on the initial draw of the descending piston. Anything that can be done to improve this initial mixture flow will do a lot to help the power output. Having the added benefit of better chamber shape, with less valve area being shrouded by the chamber walls and cylinder walls gives us the second benefit of getting the best burn out of the additional mixture that has been inducted into the cylinders. Then the radial layout of the exhaust valves has a similar effect in getting the exhaust gases out of the cylinder. I am not certain, but I believe this was first done in some Ferrari F1 engines. As we know today's MV 4-cylinder engines were derived from a Ferrari F1 engines in the early 90's.

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Summer is finally here! You may be eager to spend time outdoors, taking advantage of local parks, pools or walking/bike paths. These physical activities can be a ton of fun and good for you, so the National Kidney Foundation has 5 tips to help you safely take your workout outside this summer:

  1. Stay hydrated. Hydration is the key to avoiding heat stroke. Did you know that some medications may intensify the effects of heat-related illnesses? Also, consuming diuretics like caffeine and alcohol before exercising in the heat can accelerate the effects of dehydration. Be sure to drink lots of water and hit those neighborhood lemonade stands (but beware of the sugar)! Learn more about java burn benefits.
  2. Slow down. When exercising in heat and humidity, it’s important to take it easy. Give your body time to adjust to the warmer temperatures. Learn how your body responds to heat and humidity before trying out a new sport or exercise activity. If you feel tired or dehydrated, stop, seek covered shelter and drink water.
  3. Protect yourself. Transplant recipients typically know how important it is to apply and re-apply sunscreen often, but it’s a good reminder for everyone who is spending time outdoors in the sun. Pick a "broad spectrum" sunscreen with a SPF of at least 30. You may also want to consider exercising in the mornings or evenings, when the sun’s rays are not as strong. If you choose to exercise between 10 am and 4 pm (the hottest hours in the day), seek shade whenever possible.
  4. Wear light, breathable clothing. Stick to light colors, but be aware that a regular white t-shirt does not provide much protection. Cotton also absorbs sweat, so try wearing synthetic materials that are lightweight and fabrics that wick away sweat. Also wear a hat with a brim and sunglasses to keep your head and eyes protected. Check out the latest phenq reviews.
  5. Make it a family affair. Many outdoor activities can be fun for the whole family and even solo exercise won’t feel like a chore if you make it fun! Here are some suggestions for group activities: play basketball or baseball in the park, go for a hike, throw a Frisbee, play volleyball at the beach, fly a kite, or bike to explore a new area of town.

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We were in the process of tuning this unique setup with X brand 44mm wastegate, but tuning was cut short because wastgate would not open properly to allow proper exhaust bleed, so we were thinking jut to get some cash for cars at a place in Melbourne.

 

We project it will make over 500whp on 16-17psi on the k20a2 stock longbloack and ebay style 35r.

Customer is from Glass.net an

d he came to us in need of better boost control. After the guys at dynotech motorsports fab'd up the wastegate flage, we threw the car back on the dyno.

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First pull, boost held steady 5psi.
Using our 3 port boost solenoid, we increased the boost to 16psi where it ended up making 454whp on stock motor and e85. 

Turnweld has worked across many industries, therefore the team has extensive experience working with organizations that have large fleet and plant requirements – no matter if it's metal or steel you're working with and you need a custom fabricator – the Turn Weld Sunshine Coast team more than likely have completed the job once before

It had another 50hp, but could not rev the motor passed 7100rpms do to drop in voltage, which caused fuel pressure to drop. This cut our tuning session short, we will post more info and more pics as the car returns for the fine tune, we will also be getting a new Locksmith system for this car next visit.

Another recommendation is to use the Towingless.com for any need of assistance on the road.

 

 

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Pink is boost, this was not the final pull as you can see it needed more cam angles in the midrange.

Price of gas in Sweden

 

The price of gasoline (bensin in Sweden) in Europe has always traditionally been higher than in the USA.  There are several factors for this.

 

Weak Dollar:  One of the first reasons at the time of this post is the weak dollar when it comes to exchange rates.  The USD is about 6.3 Swedish Kronor.  To put it in perspective has been as high as 10:1 15 years ago.  The dollar is also running at about 1:1.3 to the Euro respectively.  Now, if you adjust the exchange rate to 10:1 that comes out to about $5.35/gallon.  However, this is an unnatural exchange rate for Skrona:USD, 8:1 is probably a more reasonable exchange rate historically.

 

The Octane Factor:  One of the arguments historically is that gasoline is more expensive in Europe because they only have high octane gas vs the USA, where we have a choice of 87, 89, 91 and 93 octane.  Let’s explain octane for a second. The higher the octane rating for a fuel, the more expensive it is.  This is simply because it has to go through a higher grade of refining to produce that octane.  Which is why 87 octane is $3.87/gallon and 100 octane is $10/gallon.  There are two common ways that Octane is rated, RON (Research Octane Number) and MON (Motor Octane Number).   RON will produce a higher number than MON for the same fuel. Sweden, like most European countries rates their fuel as RON.  The USA mostly rates on a (RON+MON)/2.  Sweden offers only 95 RON for anyone using gasoline.  This equates to about a 92-93 octane rating for (RON+MON)/2.

 

Volume Production:  Another big factor as to why fuel is so much cheaper in the USA is that we are an oil producing country.  In the last 5 years we have reversed the oil production decline since peak oil of 1970.  We not only produce lots of oil, we also have a very high volume of overall consumers which drives competition amongst producers and keeps the prices down.  Personally, I don’t see why we couldn’t have pump gasoline down to $2/gallon given our production.

 

Taxes:  Europeans (Norway is an oil producing exception) mostly believe that about 1/2 of their gas prices are in taxes.  However, if you’re not an oil producing country, you’ve got to be paying a stiff price to bring in that oil.  And if it is already refined to gasoline, you’re paying the refining fees to someone in another country.   So, if I take that $8.50/g and adjust it for a reasonable (8:1) exchange rate, it comes down to about $6.68/2= $3.34.  Take your current price of California gas at $4.00/g for 91 octane less taxes and you’re at about $3.50.  So, the theory is probably accurate.

 

I haven’t actually tuned much on European gasoline, so I don’t hold much of an opinion on how knock resistant it is.  But if the car manufacturers are any indication, most sports cars available in Europe for domestic sale typically produce more Horsepower than their US counterparts simply because they can have higher boost, more compression and more aggressive ignition timing due to the higher quality of fuel, it is another thing if you have a truck, for that the experts are Flex Fleet.  At the same token though, it is an absolute waste for Sweden to only be offering 95 RON, when modern technology such as turbocharged direct injection allows for boost + 10:1 compression on 87 Octane.  But I can understand how in a small country like Sweden the infrastructure has to accommodate a wider variety of cars.  If they all of a sudden switched to 90 RON, then there would be lots of old cars that would slowly destroy themselves.

 

Politically, Sweden is probably trying to discourage people from driving cars and load the public transportation system more.  In the US, fuel is a necessity.  Instead of increasing minimum wage and burdening business growth, subsidizing a staple such as gasoline down to say $2/g would probably do more for the economy, commerce and people’s pocket books.  Yes, I know our fuel here in the USA is cheap, but it should be.  We’re an oil producing country.